Influencia del procesamiento tradicional de embutidos en la formación de hidrocarburos aromáticos

Autores/as

  • Intriago-Alcívar Lorena Carrera de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Físicas y Químicas, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, UTM. Portoviejo, Ecuador.
  • Suárez-Reyes Ámbar Carrera de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Físicas y Químicas, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, UTM. Portoviejo, Ecuador.
  • Zambrano-Garzón Ignacio Instituto de Posgrado, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, UTM. Portoviejo-Ecuador.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46296/ig.v5i10.0061

Palabras clave:

Benzo[a]pireno, hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, cocción, ahumado, fritura

Resumen

En el presente estudio se evaluó la influencia de los factores de procesamiento que afectan la concentración de benzo[a]pireno (BaP) en la longaniza, un embutido tradicional del Ecuador. Las muestras fueron sometidas a diferentes métodos de cocción (hervido, frito, ahumado) y posteriormente analizadas mediante HPLC-DAD. Se encontraron concentraciones de BaP en todas las muestras; el método de ahumado produjo una mayor concentración de BaP de 88.30 μg/kg, seguido del método frito con 48.25 μg/kg. El método de hervido presentó una disminución de las concentraciones de BaP obteniéndose al finalizar el proceso un valor de 23.04 μg/kg, tomando como valor inicial la concentración de BaP en la muestra cruda de 26.25 μg/kg. Se evaluaron parámetros fisicoquímicos durante los diferentes procesos de cocción, el pH mostró una correlación con el aumento de BaP en los procesos de fritura y ahumado con un r2 igual a 0.87 y 0.94, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el contenido de grasa durante el hervido disminuye simultáneamente junto con la concentración de BaP, encontrándose una correlación negativa, en el método de fritura el contenido de BaP se incrementa conforme al contenido de grasa, por el contrario, en el caso del método de ahumado, la concentración de BaP se incrementa a menor contenido de grasa. Tanto el pH como el contenido de grasa influyen en la formación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en los embutidos, sin embargo, la concentración final de BaP depende también método de cocción empleado, y de los ingredientes de la preparación del embutido.

Palabras clave: Benzo[a]pireno, hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, cocción, ahumado, fritura.

Abstract

In the present study, the influence of processing factors that affect the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in longaniza, a traditional sausage from Ecuador, was evaluated. The samples were subjected to different cooking methods (boiled, fried, smoked) and then analyzed by HPLC-DAD. BaP concentrations were found in all samples; the smoking method produced a higher BaP concentration of 88.30 μg/kg, followed by the fried method with 48.25 μg/kg. The boiling method presented a decrease in BaP concentrations, obtaining a value of 23.04 μg/kg at the end of the process, taking as the initial value the BaP concentration of the raw sample of 26.25 μg/kg. Physicochemical parameters were evaluated during the different cooking processes, the pH showed a correlation with the increase of BaP in the frying and smoking processes with an r2 equal to 0.87 and 0.94, respectively. Contrarily, the fat content during boiling decreases simultaneously along with the BaP concentration finding a negative correlation, in the frying method the BaP content is increased according to the fat content, contrary in the case of the smoking method, the baP concentration is increased to lower fat content. Both pH and fat content are factors that influence the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sausages, however, the final concentration of BaP also bank on the cooking method used, and the sausage’s ingredients. 

Keywords: Benzo[a]pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cooking, smoking, frying.

Información del manuscrito:
Fecha de recepción:
02 de septiembre de 2021.
Fecha de aceptación: 16 de octubre de 2021.
Fecha de publicación: 11 de julio de 2022.

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2022-07-11

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Intriago-Alcívar, L., Suárez-Reyes, Ámbar, & Zambrano-Garzón, I. (2022). Influencia del procesamiento tradicional de embutidos en la formación de hidrocarburos aromáticos . Revista Científica INGENIAR: Ingeniería, Tecnología E Investigación. ISSN: 2737-6249., 5(10), 22-46. https://doi.org/10.46296/ig.v5i10.0061